Brent, in north London, said it was seeking to use "any legal avenues" available to it to prevent energy firms being able to drill within its boundaries.
The Government firmly backs action to exploit what are believed to be large reserves of shale gas in rocks beneath the UK, which it claims could help bring down energy bills and create thousands of jobs.
Environmental activists are bitterly opposed to the technique, which opponents say can increase climate change, cause small earthquakes and pollute water.
Labour-controlled Brent is considered unlikely to be the target of initial fracking activity, but the council said it would seek a ban in response to a report by Public Health England. Health officials said their initial review suggested the risks to people's health were low - so long as the process is properly run and regulated.
Council leader Muhammed Butt said he would do everything within his power to address residents' concerns and "keep Brent a frack-free zone".