A hard core of up to 56 MPs stood against the massed ranks of the three main parties after the front benches agreed on the urgent need for new laws.
The Data Retention and Investigatory Powers Bill was agreed at third reading by an overwhelming majority of 416, after MPs voted 449 to 33 in favour. Earlier, Labour MP Tom Watson's cross-party bid to force the legislation to expire by the end of the year was defeated 454 votes to 56.
The Government did concede additional reviews of investigatory regulations to be completed by the election. It will be sent for Royal Assent by the end of the week.