Her office emailed Holyrood's welfare committee to say she cannot make the private meeting on June 10.
Committee convener Michael McMahon said: "We wanted a public meeting, sooner rather than later. Instead, we get a private meeting that's eventually cancelled. How insulting [is that] to the people of Scotland."
A DWP spokesman said: "Ministers have met with Scottish committees in an informal capacity and we are in touch with the committee about rearranging a further ministerial meeting.
"Ministers already appear in front of UK select committees as social security is a UK matter.
"In addition, we provide the committee with detail relating to the work of the department."