Shadow defence secretary Jim Murphy told delegates the move would help tackle the discrimination faced by many service personnel.
Labour plans to bring forward an amendment to the Defence Reform Bill next month - hoping to challenge the coalition to back the measure.
Me Murphy said: "Today, too many of our Armed Forces face disadvantage and discrimination, as do some of our veterans.
"And it's sad to think that those who fight for our country might need the additional protection of our laws, but some do."
Mr Murphy also set out plans for a Forces and Veterans Bill of Rights to enshrine in law what personnel can expect from the government including over in service education and workplace rights.
Mr Murphy also accused the SNP of planning even deeper cuts to the Armed Forces than those ordered by the Tory-Lib Dem coalition in recent years.