The SNP has two of Scotland's six MEPs, with Labour also having two Scottish representatives in the European Parliament, while the Tories and Liberal Democrats have one each.
The SNP leader will speak as he launches his party's campaign for next month's European elections.
The poll is the last election before this September's independence referendum.
As he launches the SNP's bid to increase its number of MEPs, Mr Salmond will say that Scotland needs to have its "own voice in Europe".
He will stress the contribution Scotland makes to the European Union but will also argue a "strong team of SNP MEPs" is needed.
The First Minister will say: "Westminster's short-sighted priorities have let Scotland down time and time again.
"We need the opportunity to speak with our own voice in Europe to build on the positive relationships with our neighbours Scotland has already established.
"A vote for a strong team of SNP MEPs on May 22 and a Yes vote in September will let Scotland make our mark in Europe and ensure Scotland's interests are always defended."