Wales had shown brave resistance but looked to be heading to another defeat when Chelsea's Kevin De Bruyne seized on an error from debutant James Wilson to fire the Belgians in front after 65 minutes.
But with just two minutes left on the clock, captain Ramsey was picked out by Craig Bellamy - on his 78th and final Wales appearance - and slid the ball under Thibaut Courtois to earn the visitors a hard-earned point.
The goal came just seconds after Liverpool's 16-year-old winger Harry Wilson came off the substitute's bench to become the youngest player to represent Wales.
Few had given the Welsh any chance of spoiling Belgium's World Cup qualification party but they built on a solid start.
They had an early chance when Ramsey's reverse pass found Andy King, but his pull-back did not quite reach Hal Robson-Kanu.
And they had a decent penalty appeal turned down on half-time when Simon Church went over in the box under Daniel Van Buyten's tackle.
This could prove to be Coleman's last competitive game in charge of Wales, with his contract effectively up after next month's friendly against Finland and talks of a new deal having stalled.
But he has certainly given Football Association of Wales chiefs plenty of food for thought by beating Macedonia and earning a point in Belgium with a squad ravaged by injury and missing the likes of Gareth Bale, Joe Allen and Ashley Williams.
But Scotland's win over Croatia means Wales finish a lowly fifth in Group A, and the FAW will have to decide whether some fleeting moments of promise merit another chance for the 43-year-old.