The 39-year-old, who played 73 times for his country, claims the Football Association and the majority of fans do not want a black England captain. Campbell, who was handed the armband three times in friendly matches, also labelled the selection of Michael Owen ahead of him as "embarrassing".
"I believe if I was white, I would have been England captain for more than 10 years - it's as simple as that," he said. "I think the FA wished I was white. I had the credibility, performance-wise to be captain."
It is understood the FA is not planning to respond directly to the allegations.