The 44-year-old announced his decision in a video interview on the club's official website - just a day after the start of pre-season.
Conte said time had caught up with him at the club. "I have decided to terminate my contract with Juventus. I have matured with time and my feelings led me to make this choice. It may be more difficult to keep winning with Juventus."
Conte signed a new deal earlier this year but appears to be the man destined to fill Cesare Prandelli's shoes in charge of the Italian national side. He leaves amid speculation over key players Paul Pogba and Arturo Vidal.