Burton won gold in the 100kg category after leading Scotland out at the opening ceremony, having come out of retirement for Glasgow 2014.
The 35-year-old had indicated he would return to full-time coaching and he confirmed his decision to retire from international competition in a statement.
He said: "Having won multiple European and world championship medals and titles at World Cups and Grand Slams across the globe, I could not have imagined a more fantastic end to my competitive career than leading my nation out, carrying the Saltire, in front of a home crowd and going on to deliver the Commonwealth gold at a packed and passionate Glasgow Commonwealth Games.
"With my retirement as a competing judoka, what excites me most is that I can now be instrumental in creating an environment for athletes that allows them to perform consistently at the highest levels.
"I am looking forward to helping those athletes, and many more, achieve their potential on the world stage in my role as a high performance coach for the sportscotland Institute of Sport.
"It is an exciting time for Scottish and British sport and with the 2016 Rio Olympic Games on the immediate horizon and the 2020 Tokyo Games returning Olympic judo to its homeland I am delighted to be involved in preparing the champions of the future.
"If I could fight forever, perhaps I would. However, the hair is getting greyer, the muscles sorer and it is now time to leave the winning of medals to those younger and stronger than myself."