Despite losing out on pole position to Red Bull team-mate Mark Webber, Vettel stormed into the lead before the first corner and the four-time champion never looked like relinquishing top spot as he cantered to a lights-to-flag success. Webber ultimately finished the race in second, with Mercedes driver Nico Rosberg third.
As Vettel, and the fast-starting Rosberg, passed Webber, Kimi Raikkonen was enduring a miserable end to a weekend he will want to forget in a hurry. The Lotus driver had qualified fifth, only to be excluded from the session after his car failed a scrutineering test.
That put last year's race winner at the back of the grid and, in his attempt to make up places early on, he caught the side of a Caterham into the first corner and was soon on his way home after suffering suspension damage.
Vettel built up a commanding lead and by the time he came in to change to the prime tyre, he had enough of a buffer back to Felipe Massa's Ferrari that he emerged back into first place.
There he stayed for yet another victory as he led home team-mate Webber by over 30 seconds, with the Australian unable to turn pole position in to his first win of the season.
Vettel's victory meant he joined seven-time champion Michael Schumacher in recording seven successive race wins in a calendar year, with Alberto Ascari holding the overall record for consecutive victories, having managed nine split between the 1952 and 1953 seasons.
Vettel even celebrated with more 'donuts' out on the circuit, despite the team receiving a fine from motor sport's world governing body the FIA for a similar move to mark his successful world title defence in India.
Rosberg, who said on Saturday his aim was to be the best of the rest behind the Red Bulls, achieved just that as he guided his Mercedes home to the final step on the podium.
With the German manufacturer fighting with Ferrari for second place in the constructors' championship, Rosberg's 15 points will have been welcomed.
His team-mate Lewis Hamilton, who had suffered a broken wishbone in qualifying and required a late brake change on the grid, had a quieter evening as he finished in seventh.
The sole remaining Lotus of Romain Grosjean took fourth as he finished outside the podium places for the first time since Korea.
Ferrari had looked like having an average race, with Fernando Alonso and Massa fighting each other for a large period.
But the decision to put Alonso onto soft tyres for his final stint proved to be a masterstoke as the two-time world champion passed the British pair of Hamilton and Paul Di Resta to take fifth place, with Di Resta one-stopping to seal sixth for Force India.
Massa was also able to score valuable points in the constructors' battle as he ended the race in eighth place with McLaren's Sergio Perez ninth and the second Force India of Adrian Sutil 10th.
Jenson Button once again paid the price for qualifying in the midfield as he suffered in a first-lap incident for the second race in succession.
The 2009 champion required a new front wing and, having started on the harder tyres in the hope of a long first stint, his strategy was compromised and he brought his McLaren home in 12th.
Button spent a large period of the second part of the race behind the Williams of Pastor Maldonado, who took 11th place whilst the Saubers of Esteban Gutierrez and Nico Hulkenberg finished 13th and 14th, respectively.
Valtteri Bottas was 15th in the second Williams whilst it was a disappointing race for the Toro Rosso pair of Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Eric Vergne who were next to cross the line.
Caterham outpaced fellow new team Marussia with Giedo van der Garde and Charles Pic finishing 18th and 19th respectively whilst Jules Bianchi won the inter-team Marussia battle with Max Chilton.