The 34-year-old loosehead made the last of his 65 appearances as a replacement in the loss to New Zealand on November 11 and was unavailable for last Saturday's defeat to South Africa for "personal reasons".
Now the popular Jacobsen, known as 'Chunk' and Scotland's most capped prop, has opted to quit following a 10-year career in the international arena.
Scotland begin the post-Jacobsen era against Tonga in the final EMC Test at Pittodrie in Aberdeen on Saturday.
After an arduous 2011-12 campaign which included the World Cup, Jacobsen was rested for the summer tour to Australia, Fiji and Samoa, with Glasgow Warriors loosehead Ryan Grant taking his place.
Jacobsen was unable to dislodge Grant for the start of the EMC Test series against the All Blacks, meaning his most recent Scotland start was against Ireland during the RBS 6 Nations.
Jacobsen, who made his debut against Canada in 2002, told www.scottishrugby.org: "To play international rugby you have to be absolutely committed. You have to make sacrifices and do all the extra stuff in training and preparation to be right.
"I've always tried to do that throughout my career and playing for Scotland has meant the world to me.
"But the minute there is the possibility of it feeling like a chore... well, that's the slippery slope for me and I would never want to do anything that would either devalue the Scotland jersey or anything that I've achieved."
He did not score a try for Scotland, but is renowned for his work in the tight and loose.
Scotland head coach Andy Robinson said: "Chunk has been a great servant of the Scotland team and on behalf of the team management I want to thank him for all his endeavours.
"I particularly admire how hard he worked to fight back from (a shoulder) injury after the 2007 Rugby World Cup and the effort he put in to be our starting prop in all four games at last year's World Cup in New Zealand.
"Chunk has often said that rugby has been good for him and his family and now that he wants to make his wife Gayle and daughter Maisie a bigger priority, then I'm sure all rugby people will support Chunk at this time and in the future."
Jacobsen's attentions are now fully on club rugby and continuing his career for Edinburgh, for whom he has played more the 250 times in 15 years.
He added: "My focus now will be on doing everything I can to bring success to Edinburgh. My desire to play for Edinburgh is really strong."
Edinburgh head coach Michael Bradley added: "We fully respect and empathise with Chunk's decision to retire from international rugby.
"Having spoken with him it's absolutely clear that he is 100 per cent committed to the Edinburgh Rugby cause.
"He is a fans' favourite and everyone involved in the club looks forward to seeing him back in the black and red of Edinburgh Rugby, starting with his involvement this Friday against Ospreys at Murrayfield."