The UK and the EU have reached a Brexit trade deal less than a week before the deadline.

Politicians and experts now have more than 1200 pages of legal text to read after the document was published on Boxing Day.

Here, we take a look at what the deal could mean for the average person, their activities and spending.

Here's what you need to know:

Will my shopping be more expensive?

There will be no tariffs on products sold between the UK and the EU to allow companies on both sides to keep trading in a similar way to now, with the idea of preventing price rises and keeping shelves stocked.

The European Commission said the two sides had created “an ambitious free trade area with no tariffs or quotas on products, regulatory and customs co-operation mechanisms”.

The commission said products such as meats, dairy and cereals could have faced tariffs of as much as 50% under World Trade Organisation rules, and car deals could have faced an extra 10% cost, all of which has been prevented by striking a deal.


Can I go on holiday or on a business trip?

Rules for business trips and holidays will change as free movement of people between the EU and the UK comes to an end. UK citizens will be allowed to stay in the EU for 90 days in any 180-day period without a visa, and the same will apply for EU citizens in the UK.

The European Commission says the choice to end free movement “inevitably means that business travel between the EU and the UK will no longer be as easy as it currently is”.

People heading from the UK for business have been told by the Government to check the requirements of the country they are travelling to.

British passport holders will no longer be able to use the EU passport queue at airports and other borders.

Will I need a visa for my holiday?

From 2022, you will have to purchase a £6 visa-waiver for holidays and short stays.

UK nationals will not need a visa for short trips to EU countries (up to 90 days in any 180-day period) if they're just going on holiday.

But they will have to pay for a 'visa-waiver' – this will cost €7 (£6.28) and will be issued under the 'European Travel Information and Authorisation System'.


Can I work in the EU?

From 2021 onwards you may need extra documents to work or study, or for trips longer than 90 days.

Details of this have yet to be confirmed and it will likely depend on what you are doing and where you are going.

But those going to work or study abroad, plus those just going on business trips, might be affected from January 1, 2021, onwards.

Will I need a blue passport?

No, your current passport is still eligible.

Pre-Brexit, you could travel to EU countries on your passport right up to the point it expires – and that is continued to be the case this year, and will be until the end of the transition period on December 31.

However, next year, the rules are changing.

These changes were announced prior to the trade deal and aren't expected to be affected by it.

Under the new rules, from January 1, 2021, when you visit most EU countries and Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, your passport will need to have at least six months left on it until expiry and be less than ten years old on the day you travel.


Will security change?

The UK will lose access to a variety of key EU databases which the police use which cover things such as criminal records, fingerprints and wanted persons.

However, the UK will still have access to other systems which include cross-checks fingerprints across Europe. This means that security co-operation will no longer be on “real-time” access.

The UK and the EU have reached an agreement on extradition, and the UK's role in Europol, the cross-border security agency, allows it to sit in on meetings but not have a direct say in decisions.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson said he was "absolutely confident" the deal "protects our police co-operation, protects our ability to catch criminals and to share intelligence across the European continent in the way that we have done for many years".

What about fishing?

The value of fish being caught by the EU in UK waters will be reduced by 25% and will be phased into transition over a five-and-a-half-year period.

Once the transition period is over, the UK will fully control access to its waters and could make much deeper cuts. 


What is the impact on EU citizens living in the UK?

While Brexit affects everyone in the UK, the most immediate direct impact is on the 3.8 million people living here who are citizens of other EU countries.

If you are a European Economic Area or Swiss citizen living in Britain, you won't have to leave the UK because we've left the EU.  

But you and your family may have to register with the EU Settlement Scheme to continue living in the UK after June 30, 2021.

A ‘settled status’ will be given to successful applicants who, by the time they apply, have been living in the UK for at least five years.

And a pre-settled status will be given to successful applicants who won't have lived in the UK for five years by the time they apply.

The deadline for applying is June 30, 2021.

Will I get healthcare in Europe?

Yes, but it is best to think ahead. The European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) will still be valid for the time being, until the UK provides its own card, but you are being advised to still get insurance before you travel.

And all EHIC permits issued before the end of this year will be valid, but only until their expiry date.

After that, the Government will issue a new card called the UK Global Health Insurance Card (GHIC).

When it is released, the new card will cover existing or chronic illnesses, routine maternity care and emergencies.


Will it cost me to use my phone abroad?

The EU scrapped data roaming charges within EU countries in 2017.

UK customers have been able to use the minutes, texts and data included on their mobile phone tariffs when travelling in the EU.

The Government does not say that the ban on additional roaming charges will continue after Brexit.

In their draft agreement, they say network suppliers will be encouraged to "make publicly available information on retail rates for international mobile roaming services for voice, data and text messages offered to their end-users".

Can I drive abroad?

Yes, however from January 1 many EU countries will need you to obtain an International Driving Permit.

The permit is available for £5.50 from a local Post Office and you will also need a ‘green card’ which is a free certificate to prove you have the right car insurance.


Can my pet go abroad?

The pet passport scheme between the UK and the EU will end on January 1 and any animals taken into the EU will need an Animal Health Certificate.

The UK Government is advising people to allow a month to arrange this and any other vaccinations their animal may need.

You will also need to:

  • Have your dog, cat or ferret microchipped.
  • Vaccinate your dog, cat or ferret against rabies – your pet must be at least 12 weeks old before it can be vaccinated.
  • Wait 21 days after the primary vaccination before travel.
  • Visit your vet to get an AHC for your pet no more than ten days before travel to the EU.


Will anything change with medicines?

There is a dedicated section in the draft deal looking at maintaining the availability of medicines on both sides of the Channel.

It sets out that both the UK and the EU countries can accept certificates from the other for medicines, and must hand over any certifying information to the other party within 30 days if it is requested.

It also sets out that in times of emergency or crisis, hauliers carrying medicines will not need to have obtained a licence to travel.

Will my home cost more?

Experts are divided on how Brexit will impact the housing market in the UK but they generally agree that prices are likely to fall in 2021.

The Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) predicted last month that house prices will fall by 8.5% by the end of next year.

What does it mean for the pound?

The value of the pound increased after the deal was announced.


Can I study abroad?

Yes, however, the UK has pulled out of the EU-funded student exchange programme Erasmus which was established in 1987.

The UK Government will allow students the chance to compete for places on a new scheme named after Bletchley Park codebreaker Alan Turing.

What does it mean for the European Court of Justice (ECJ)?

The EU's highest court will remain the ultimate arbiter of European law.

However, the UK Government has said the direct jurisdiction of the ECJ in the UK will come to an end.

One place where the ECJ will still play a role in Northern Ireland, which has a special status under the terms of the Brexit withdrawal agreement.

Can we still buy European wine?

Wine can still be traded and sold between the UK and the EU.

Certificates will now be needed for wine to be imported, and a suggested draft can be found in the document.

It asks for information such as a description and details on how it was transported.
The region and grower of the wine should also be given somewhere in the official documents.

Can I take food and drink into the EU?

Under new rules, from January 1 you will no longer be able to take any products which contain meat or milk into EU countries.

There are exceptions for powdered infant milk and food, pet food or food required for medical reasons.

For the latest rules on travelling from the UK to Europe, you can visit the UK Government website here.