Coronavirus regulations that force the closure of churches in Scotland and criminalise public worship have been deemed unlawful.

A group of 27 church leaders launched a judicial review at the Court of Session arguing Government ministers acted out with their powers when ordering the closure of places of worship under emergency legislation.

Judge Lord Braid issued his judgment on Wednesday, saying that the Scottish Government can’t ‘dictate’ to Christians to accept ‘worship lite’ ways of praising God during the pandemic.

He fouind the regulations were unlawful as they disproportionately interfered with the freedom of religion secured in the European Convention on Human Rights (EHRC).

READ MORE: Glasgow priest Canon Tom White joins legal action against Scottish Government over lockdown rules

However, he stopped short of saying Churches could reopen immediately, saying that 

Lord Braid: “It is impossible to measure the effect of those restrictions on those who hold religious beliefs.

“It goes beyond mere loss of companionship and an inability to attend a lunch club.

“The fact that the regulations are backed by criminal sanctions is also a relevant consideration.

“Were the petitioners to insist on manifesting their beliefs, in accordance with their religion, they would be liable to be met with a fine of up to £10,000, a not insignificant penalty.

“The above factors all point towards the conclusion that the regulations have a disproportionate effect."


Churches have said worship could be maintained with social distancing (stock pic)

Lord Braid added: “There are however other factors which point the other way, not least the severity of Covid-19 and the threats posed by the new variant, which I do not underplay in the slightest.

“This factor deserves considerable weight.

“The need to avoid the NHS being overwhelmed is another factor, although if I am correct in saying that the risk is reduced to an insignificant extent by the regulations, this factor attracts less weight.

“The fact that much public opinion, including that of other faiths and church leaders, supports the closures is also a relevant consideration, which I thought initially might carry some weight.

“However, I have concluded that it does not, for a number of reasons.”

Additional party Canon Tom White’s argument that the regulations were disproportionate on constitutional grounds was also found to be the case by the judge.

READ MORE:  Hope United Church in Motherwell investigated over lockdown breach

A further hearing will now take place so potential remedies can be discussed.

The petitioners have asked for a declarator that a person living in a Level 4 area may lawfully leave their home to attend a place of worship.

Churches are due to be allowed to open on Friday under Scottish Government guidance.

Lord Braid added: “It is as important to understand what I have not decided as what I have.

“I have not decided that all churches must immediately open or that it is safe for them to do so, or even that no restrictions at all are justified.

“All I have decided is that the regulations which are challenged in this petition went further than they were lawfully able to do, in the circumstances which existed when they were made.”


Tron Church, Glasgow

Rev Dr William Philip, senior minister at the Tron Church in Glasgow, was one of those behind the legal challenge and welcomed the ruling.

He said: “However well intentioned, criminalising corporate worship has been both damaging and dangerous for Scotland, and must never happen again.”

The Catholic priest who participated in the action, Canon Tom White, of St Alphonsus Church in Glasgow, said: “Thanks be to God for this wonderful news!

“I’m overjoyed to hear that the court has understood the essential need to protect not only the physical and material health of our society but also it’s spiritual needs and therefore overturned the disproportionate, unnecessary and now deemed illegal blanket ban on public worship. 

 “This decision highlights the significance of the church’s role in the very fabric of our society. Now, we can trust that our fragile and damaged communities will never again be left without the church as a source of hope, comfort, and vital spiritual nourishment in times of crisis."

READ MORE: Hope United Church - Pastor rails against lockdowns at length online

Elaine Motion of Balfour+Manson, who acted as a solicitor for Canon White said : “The Scottish approach to public worship was the most Draconian in the UK, and placed disproportionate limitations on people of faith.

 “There were other less restrictive - but perfectly appropriate - options open and provided to the Scottish Government that did not deny people their right to worship and celebrate their faith." 

“The fact that criminal sanctions are in place for any breach of the regulations, particularly conscientious belief, has a fundamental chilling effect on worship and belief."