Authorities in Moscow have announced plans to shut restaurants and non-food stores and introduce other restrictions later this month as Russia registered the highest daily number of new coronavirus infections and deaths since the start of the pandemic.

The government coronavirus task force reported 36,339 new confirmed infections and 1,036 deaths in the past 24 hours that brought Russia's death toll to 227,389 - by far the highest in Europe.

On Wednesday, Russian President Vladimir Putin responded to rising cases and deaths by ordering Russians to stay off work for a period starting on October 30 and extending through the following week, and Moscow mayor Sergei Sobyanin followed up on Thursday by introducing a range of restrictions in the capital.

He said all restaurants, cafes and non-food stores, gyms, cinemas and other entertainment venues in the Russian capital will be shut from October 28 to November 7, and schools will also be closed.

Access to museums, theatres and other venues will be limited to holders of digital codes proving vaccination or past illness, a practice that will also remain in place after November 7.

"The situation in Moscow is developing according to the worst-case scenario," Mr Sobyanin wrote on his blog, adding that the number of infections in the capital is nearing all-time highs.

Russia's daily infections have been surging for weeks and coronavirus mortality numbers topped 1,000 for the first time over the weekend amid low vaccination rates, lax public attitudes towards taking precautions and the government's reluctance to tighten restrictions.

Only about 45 million Russians - roughly a third of its nearly 146 million people - are fully vaccinated.

The non-working period, which includes a two-day state holiday, should help limit the spread by keeping people out of offices and off crowded public transportation.

The government also urged local authorities to restrict access to restaurants, theatres and other entertainment venues during the period.

Mr Putin said that in some regions where the situation is the most threatening the non-working period could start as early as Saturday and be extended past November 7.

Until now, the Kremlin has ruled out a nationwide lockdown like the one early in the pandemic that dealt a heavy blow to the economy and sapped Mr Putin's popularity, instead empowering regional authorities to decide on local restrictions.

Many of Russia's 85 regions already have restricted attendance at large public events and introduced digital codes proving vaccination or past illness for access to restaurants, theatres and other venues. Some have made vaccinations compulsory for certain public servants and people over 60.

But Moscow had avoided restrictions until now, with restaurants and cinemas brimming with people, crowds swarming nightclubs and karaoke bars, and commuters widely ignoring mask mandates on public transportation even as ICUs have been filling quickly.