The actress will play Jo Gillespie, whose husband Ryan is shot dead in mysterious circumstances, and who is forced to confront some uncomfortable truths about her marriage as she delves into his final days.
Writer Matt Charman said: "Sheridan Smith is a dream to write for because as an actress there's really nothing she can't do. And Black Work is a story that pushes her to the limit - it makes her character, Jo Gillespie doubt herself, her family, her friends, everything she's always taken for granted, in her search for her husband's killer."
ITV's director of drama commissioning Steve November said: "We're delighted to be working with Sheridan Smith again and with the hugely talented Matt Charman.
"Black Work is a high stakes drama which sees Jo risk everything in search of the truth. It's a risk she's prepared to take but it threatens to destroy both her family and career."
The three-part drama will begin filming this autumn in Leeds.
Smith will soon be seen in ITV drama Cilla, where she plays Cilla Black in the early days of her career.