RIKEN Innovation Capital (RIC), the investment division of scientific research organisation RIKEN, has plans to co-invest in promising companies alongside Scottish Enterprise's investment arm, the Scottish Investment Bank.
A fund being raised by RIC is expected to have secured $25m by the end of October and $50m by the time 2013 comes to a close.
It is understood much of the money already pledged has come from major banks in Japan.
While the fund is not solely focused on Scotland there are hopes the memorandum of understanding being signed in Tokyo by RIC and Scottish Enterprise officials will lead to a steady pipeline of investment deals and knowledge transfer programmes between the two countries.
Paul Lewis, Scottish Enterprise managing director of sectors and commercialisation, said the deal should help Scottish firms boost finances and research means.
He said: "RIKEN is a major player in Japan's research and funding community and this new partnership represents an opportunity for Scottish companies not only to access significant international investment but to collaborate with a world leading research institution to help develop and commercialise technologies for the future.
"RIC's decision to partner with Scottish Enterprise reinforces Scotland's reputation as a fertile breeding ground for new life sciences and green technologies and as a location where young companies with global potential are nurtured and supported to commercialise technologies and take them to the international marketplace.
"Scotland continues to produce exciting innovative young companies with emerging technologies, products and services that boast global potential and through international strategic agreements like this, our investment activities will continue to drive further investment and confidence in those companies and in Scotland."
Kenji Okuma, president at RIC, said: "We share Scotland's ambition for international collaboration in the life sciences and green technology area and recognise the value of Scotland's attractive environment for research and clinical studies and its sophisticated system to support leading edge technology companies.
"Scotland's major universities contribute a lot to create interesting university spinout opportunities and we believe this agreement signals a historical step for our mutual success to achieve win-win investment cases while extending our network."
In recent months the £103m Renewable Energy Investment fund has launched in Scotland along with the £50m Rock Spring Venture life sciences fund.
Scottish Enterprise said more than £600m has been invested since 2003 using its co-investment approach where the public sector body provides match funding alongside private sector investors.
RIKEN, founded in 1917, has around 3000 scientists based at seven campuses across Japan with the main one in Wako, near Tokyo.