The men, aged 26, 30, 34 and 39, and a 27-year-old woman, were arrested at several locations on Wednesday last week in an operation led by Police Scotland and involving the Police Service of Northern Ireland and the security service.
The inquiry focused on the activities of individuals suspected of being sympathetic to dissident Republicanism but not affiliated to any specific group.
The five have been charged under section five of the Terrorism Act, which covers the preparation of terrorist acts, and alleged conspiracy to murder, a Police Scotland spokeswoman said.
The charges come after police were granted an extension on Friday to continue questioning the five, being held at high-security Govan police station.
Police Scotland Assistant Chief Constable Ruaraidh Nicolson said last week the arrests involved a number of specialist police units.