The campaign at Edinburgh University centres on the archive and libraries belonging to the School of Scottish Studies.
The archive contains thousands of photos and audio tapes which record the songs, stories, traditions, and culture of Scotland from the 1930s onwards.
Campaigners are concerned over university plans to separate the collection both from its associated libraries and from the building where teaching and research is conducted.
They also believe the Celtic and Scottish Studies libraries, which currently are accessible to all students within the department, will be dispersed to various locations both on and off the campus – with some disposed of entirely if deemed "surplus to requirements".
Mhairi Britton, a campaign spokeswoman, said: "We see no justification for separating the library and archive and thus threatening 60 years of innovative scholarship in the field of Scottish ethnology."
A spokesman for Edinburgh University said the institution was immensely proud of the archives and was fully committed to the care of the collection.