Official figures show the proportion of probationers with full-time permanent employment is now 35% – up from 21% last year.
There has also been a rise in the proportion of new teachers securing part-time permanent jobs and full-time temporary contracts.
Overall, the percentage of probationers not in employment is now 10% – down from 19% last year.
Anthony Finn, chief executive of the General Teaching Council for Scotland, which conducted the survey, welcomed the figures – but stressed more progress needed to be made.
"It is clear these figures show an improving trend in employment prospects for new teachers in Scotland, and this is a welcome development after a number of disappointing results in recent years," he said.
"It is also interesting to note the number of people reliant on supply contracts is falling, but, despite this good progress, there is still some way to go before the employment prospects of new teachers return to the levels of a few years ago."
A Scottish Government spokesman said: "Post-probation employment rates are now better than they have been since 2006/07 and teacher unemployment is lower in Scotland than anywhere else in the UK.
"It is also encouraging that around 90% of last year's probationers secured either full-time, part-time, permanent, temporary or supply teaching positions."