The drugs were dispensed to 747,158 patients in Scotland in 2012/13, up from 718,330 in 2011/12.
A rise of 17.9% has been recorded since 2009/10, when 633,791 people received antidepressants.
More than two-thirds (67%) of the patients who received antidepressants in the last year were female, the statistics show.
Women accounted for 500,233 of those treated with the drugs, compared with 246,925 male patients.
Antidepressant treatment peaked for people aged 45 to 49, steadily decreasing as patients get older.
Rhoda Grant, Scottish Labour's wellbeing spokeswoman, said the rise was worrying.
"The use of antidepressants should be a last resort after other non-medicinal therapies have been tried," she said.
"GPs need to be able to give the time and commitment to patients with mental health issues but often they are under too much pressure to do so.
"The Scottish Government ditched their targets to reduce the use of antidepressants but these rocketing numbers show they need to look again and find a way to combat Scotland's increasing reliance on pills to cope with daily life."
Many drugs classified as antidepressants can also be used to treat conditions other than depression, such as migraines and chronic pain, the Scottish Government said.
A spokeswoman said: "The Scottish Government has long worked hard to reduce the stigma faced by people with mental health problems. As this stigma declines we would expect more patients to seek help from their GPs for problems such as depression.
"There is good evidence that GPs in Scotland assess and treat depression appropriately, with many patients being offered medication for longer to avoid a recurrence.
"People with mental illness should expect the same standard of care as people with physical illness and should receive medication if they need it.
"While we ensure those who need medication continue to receive it, we are also committed to improving access to alternatives, such as psychological therapies, that increase choice and best accommodate patient preference."