A team led by Professor Chris Exley at Keele University found at least twice the amount of aluminium in formula as is allowed in tap water, which they said could pose risks to health.
Brands including Aptamil, Cow & Gate and Hipp Organic all contained levels of aluminium which are too high, the researchers said.
Prof Exley said aluminium had been linked to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological conditions and it was time for the Government to take steps to issue limits on aluminium in formula.
Some formulas have amounts of aluminium 100 times higher than the same amount of breast milk, he said. He added: "We believe this is too much aluminium to be subjecting a human to at their most vulnerable stage of life. Manufacturers have done nothing to address this."
The makers of Aptamil, Cow and Gate and SMA all said levels of aluminium were well within the European Food Safety Authority guidelines.
An FSA spokesman said: "Independent experts from the Committee on Toxicity recently reviewed aluminium in the infant diet.
"They concluded that the estimated exposures of infants to aluminium from the dietary sources did not indicate toxicological concerns or a need for a change in Government advice."