The maps have been produced by the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (Sepa), which said they form a comprehensive source of national data on flood hazards.
The maps, developed with the help of local authorities and Scottish Water, show different types of flooding, the likelihood of it happening and the effect such flooding can have.
Sepa chief executive James Curran said the publication of the new flood maps would help various bodies take "a more co-ordinated, sustainable and targeted approach towards reducing the impacts which flooding can have".
"It is clear that there has never been a greater need for this information as we have seen, yet again over the last month, the misery that flooding has brought to communities across the country," he said.
"As many people will be all too aware, flooding is a real threat and it can have devastating effects on lives and properties.
"In Scotland, for many years now, we've been aware of the expected increase in flooding caused by climate change and by having more information on the types of flooding and its impacts we can make more informed decisions and target our resources in the areas where we can make a real difference.
"We can all help to reduce the impacts of flooding. By taking action now members of the public and businesses can limit the damage which flooding can cause.
"People can learn more about how flooding can affect their lives by looking at the flood maps and use this information to help prepare and protect themselves and their properties."
People can view the maps at http://www.sepa.org.uk/flooding/flood_maps.aspx where search functions will allow them to focus in on their local area or a particular place of interest.
Information on the threats posed by river flooding, coastal flooding and surface water is available on the maps.
Sepa and other bodies will use the new resource to produce flood risk management strategies and local flood risk management plans.
The maps were published as a summit looking at how to tackle flooding was held in Edinburgh.
Environment and climate change minister Paul Wheelhouse said a huge amount of work has gone into creating the maps.
He said: "Sepa's new flood risk and hazard maps are an extremely useful tool in supporting flood risk strategies across Scotland as they show not only the extent of flooding under different risk scenarios, but also the potential depth and velocity of flood waters.
"With extreme weather events predicted to become more frequent, it is of the utmost importance that we are as prepared as possible to respond when these hit."
Environmental campaigners WWF Scotland welcomed the publication.
Director Lang Banks said: "These maps reveal that right across the country homes, businesses and some of our most critical infrastructure is at increased risk of flooding.
"In addition to the threat posed to the public, a major flood or inundation at many of these locations has the potential to do major damage to Scotland's economy.
"Climate change will mean Scotland's weather will become more extreme and more unpredictable, including more floods and storms.
"So, while these maps should help us to plan and prepare, the best insurance policy to head off the worst of the danger is to reduce the emissions which are changing our climate."