Spending on the 17 sports will be more than £38 million during 2011-15, compared with around 31 million in 2007-11, according to sportscotland.
Louise Martin, who chairs the agency, said: "By increasing investment levels into the sports by more than 23%, we are playing a significant role in ensuring that the athletes who will be selected for Team Scotland will be the best-ever prepared at a Games.
"It also allows the sports to enhance their governance, which underpins their performance and development strategies."
Commonwealth Games and Sport Minister Shona Robison said: "We are committed to delivering a meaningful, lasting legacy from the Games in 2014. This additional investment will ensure our sports clubs, volunteers and coaches are well prepared to cope with the anticipated interest in sport in 2014 and beyond.
"Last year was fantastic for Scottish sport but this must not be the high-tide mark. The Scottish governing bodies of sport are going from strength to strength and I now expect to see the most prepared, most organised and most successful Team Scotland ready for the 2014."
Jon Doig, Commonwealth Games Scotland chief executive, said: "We are delighted to see the result of this additional investment in performance sport bearing dividends in terms of athlete performances in 2013, with many athletes reaching Commonwealth Games selection standards.
"This augurs well for 2014 when Team Scotland hopes to have its biggest and most successful team ever at the Games, making the whole of Scotland proud."