In an open letter to the Scottish Government, the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, alongside conservation groups John Muir Trust and Scottish Wild Land Group, has raised concerns that Europe's only gold-tier Dark Sky Park in Galloway Forest is being placed in jeopardy following a raft of applications from developers and energy firms.
They have asked the government to update planning policy to prevent the erection of wind turbines in the area for fear it would have a catastrophic effect on the current unspoiled views of the stars and planets.
The letter cites Ministry of Defence and Aviation Authority safety requirements for high structures to be illuminated at night by either infra-red or visible light sources.
It is this, campaigners claim, which could limit use of sensitive equipment by astronomers and have a detrimental effect on stargazing.
They write: "Our wild landscapes are the nation's birthright and the foundation of our tourist economy. We must fiercely protect them."
Professor John Brown, Astronomer Royal for Scotland, said: "There is a place for wind farms in our national energy mix but they should not be sited in the Dark Sky Park.
"We should be seeking to protect the wonderful dark skies of the Galloway Forest above the world-leading Scottish Dark Sky Observatory. Installing any large structures that require illumination - whether visible or infra-red - would be akin to putting a factory in Glencoe or electricity pylons along the Cuillin Ridge.
"Our First Minister was instrumental in helping to secure funding for the observatory and he opened it with much passion and aplomb in October last, praising Scotland for leading the world with this fine public and educational facility. But Mr Salmond is also an ardent advocate of wind farms and so faces a dilemma."
The 300 square mile park was awarded gold-tier status by the International Dark Sky Association in 2009, making it the first site of its kind in Europe and only the fourth in the world at that time.
Based on a scale ranging from 0 to 25, the centre of a major city such as Glasgow or Edinburgh would measure about an eight, whereas a photographer's dark room be rated as 24.
Galloway Forest Park ranges from 21 to 23.6, providing as near to total darkness as is possible in a populated area.
The Scottish Dark Sky Observatory at Craigengillan, East Ayrshire, which received almost £100,000 from the Scottish Government, opened last October. It is estimated the facility will attract 100,000 visitors each year within five years of being established.
John Milne, co-ordinator of the Scottish Wild Land Group, said: "Scotland's only Dark Sky Park is particularly significant and we are appalled that it is threatened by these proposals.
"Illumination on the scale required by proposed wind farms could effectively destroy the Dark Sky Park and we call on the Government to ensure that these developments do not go ahead."
Stuart Brooks, chief executive of the John Muir Trust, said: "The pristine night sky, untainted by as much as a glimmer of artificial light, is a magnificent sight.
"It would be a tragedy if this elemental sense of wildness were to be diminished by the introduction of industrial structures with their associated light pollution. This is a huge threat to an area that should be respected as a national treasure."