Cuts to the benefits system are thought to be the cause of the steep rise, and the Trussell Trust, which runs 25 foodbanks, has called on Prime Minister David Cameron to hold a national inquiry into food poverty.
A total of 23,073 Scots, including 6608 children, received food parcels between April and September this year, the trust said. During the same period in 2012 there were 4021 requests for assistance, including from 1235 youngsters.
The trust warned that some recipients are so poor they have had to return produce that needs cooking because they cannot afford the electricity to heat it up.
Citizens Advice Scotland described the figures as truly shameful, and said they were just the tip of the iceberg. CAS also said its own research suggested that three-quarters of people who use foodbanks are forced to do so because of cuts to the benefits system.
Ewan Gurr, regional development officer for Scotland at the Trussell Trust, agreed that "stringent" welfare reforms imposed by the Westminster Government had been a major factor.
He said: "We have to admit now that there is something fundamentally wrong with our approach to food poverty. The rising cost of living and the cuts in the welfare system have all contributed to this sharp rise in foodbank users.
"The Trussell Trust is calling on the Prime Minister to hold a national inquiry. There is no point in providing food relief at the micro level if no-one is asking questions at the macro level. We need to address the real problem before the situation gets any worse."
Across the UK, more than 350,000 people received food parcels between April and September, three times as many as in the same period last year.
Citizens Advice Scotland, meanwhile, said that nearly 1000 people had been referred to foodbanks by its bureaux advisers since April.
An analysis of 500 cases found that 73% of people who needed to use a foodbank did so because their benefits were delayed or they had lost their entitlement through sanctions, reassessments or the so-called bedroom tax.
Chris Mould, executive chairman of the Trussell Trust, said there had been no response from Government since the charity first warned of increasing numbers of people turning to foodbanks in April.
A UK Government spokesman said: "We have taken action to help families with the cost of living, including increasing the tax-free personal allowance to £10,000 which will save a typical taxpayer over £700, freezing council tax for five years and freezing fuel duty. The Trussell Trust itself says it is opening three new foodbanks every week, so it's not surprising more people are using them.
"The benefits system supports millions of people who are on low incomes or unemployed and there is no robust evidence that welfare reforms are linked to increased use of food banks."