And one in ten Scots say their activities are limited a lot by their health.
Almost a tenth (9 per cent) of people say they are providing unpaid care to family members, friends, neighbours or others because of their health.
The proportion of Scots with limiting health conditions increased with age, with 5% of under-25s having a limiting condition compared with 83% of over-85s.
Culture Secretary Fiona Hyslop, whose remit includes national records, says the census data "explodes some popular alarmist myths" about Scotland's demographic problems.
The UK Government says the challenge that most developed countries face supporting their ageing populations "will be more pronounced in Scotland, mostly because there are relatively fewer children in Scotland, meaning there may be fewer workers in the future to support those who cannot work".
But Ms Hyslop said the census actually shows that "the number of working-age people compared to the number of dependents is lower than for the rest of the UK".