The British rock band will headline on the first night of the two-day musical extravaganza, which will be in Glasgow Green on May 24 and 25.
The announcement was made on Fearne Cotton's Radio 1 show today by frontman Chris Martin.
The band then played a live set, including tracks from their new album.
The four-piece - whose multi-million selling albums include Parachutes, A Rush of Blood to the Head and X&Y - will join Pharell Williams, Paulo Nutini, Rita Ora and The 1975 on the packed bill for the free music festival.
Radio 1 bosses say the remaining acts, including the headliner for the Sunday event, will be announced in the coming weeks.
Talking about the news, Will Champion, Coldplay's drummer said: "We are absolutely thrilled to have been asked to play Radio 1's Big Weekend in Glasgow this year.
"Playing in Glasgow is always so much fun and Radio 1 has always been wonderful to us so it could not really be any better."
Ben Cooper, controller of Radio 1 and 1Xtra, said: "Radio 1's ambition was to bring the biggest acts in the world to Glasgow for Big Weekend - and it doesn't get much bigger than Coldplay."
When 50,000 free tickets for the Big Weekend were made available last month they were snapped up in just over half an hour.
The Big Weekend starts with a night of live music in George Square on May 23.