The data, from a Panelbase poll commissioned by the SNP, found the First Minister had a total satisfaction rating of 48%, while 37% of those asked were dissatisfied. A further 16% had no strong feeling.
The SNP hailed the 11-point positive rating outcome, as measured against very large negative ratings for the three main Westminster leaders, as proof of Mr Salmond's popularity.
Panelbase polled 1,043 people aged 18 and over in Scotland from August 23-28 and asked: "Are you satisfied or dissatisfied with the way the following political leader are doing their job?"
The findings were:
Alex Salmond: Very satisfied: 25%, Slightly satisfied: 23% (total 48%). Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied: 16%. Slightly dissatisfied: 14%, Very dissatisfied: 23% (total 37%). Overall rating +11.
David Cameron: Very satisfied: 5%, Slightly satisfied: 16% (total 21%). Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied: 13%. Slightly dissatisfied: 18%, Very dissatisfied: 48% (total 66%). Overall rating -45.
Ed Miliband: Very satisfied: 1%, Slightly satisfied: 12% (total 13%). Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied: 28%. Slightly dissatisfied: 20%, Very dissatisfied: 39% (total 59%). Overall rating -46
Nick Clegg: Very satisfied: 1% Slightly satisfied: 12% (total 13%). Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied: 21%. Slightly dissatisfied: 18%, Very dissatisfied: 48% (total 66%). Overall rating -53
The SNP said among people who voted Labour in the Scottish Parliament constituency vote in 2011, a total of 28% are satisfied with Mr Miliband and 40% are dissatisfied.
Among people who voted LibDem in the Scottish Parliament constituency vote in 2011, a total of 22% are satisfied with Mr Clegg and 50% are dissatisfied.
SNP Depute Leader and Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said: "These are remarkable figures, which underline the popularity of the First Minister after more than six years in office and the record of delivery of this government."
This is the third release of statistics from the SNP's Panelbase poll.
The first release on Monday found 44% of the 908 polled who are certain to vote in the independence referendum intend to vote Yes, against 43% who intend to vote No.
The balance tips slightly in favour of a No vote at 42% compared with 41% for Yes once the additional 135 people who are less certain to vote are factored in.
The SNP's second release yesterday found that support for independence rises to 50% if those most likely to vote on September 18 next year felt there would be another Conservative/Liberal Democrat coalition at Westminster in 2015, and 47% if they predict a UK Labour government.
A breakdown of the previous SNP releases published yesterday by Panelbase also reveals men are more confident about Scotland's prospects as an independent country, with 62% of those certain to vote agreeing that it could be successful against 43% of women.
Men are also more likely to vote for independence, with 50% of those certain to vote indicating Yes and 38% for No, against 37% of women voting Yes and 48% voting No.
A third of Labour voters think Scotland could be a successful independent country (34%), compared with around a quarter of Lib Dem voters (27%), around one in 12 Tory voters (8%) and eight in every 10 SNP voters (83%).
A tenth of SNP voters do not think Scotland could be a successful independent country, and the same proportion intends to vote No in the independence referendum.
Around a quarter of Labour voters intend to vote Yes (24%), compared with three-quarters of SNP supporters (77%) and around one in twenty Conservative (6%) and Lib Dem (5%) voters.