The Government said projects for 2012/13 will support more than 40,000 jobs across the economy.
Meanwhile a further £3.4 billion of capital investment is planned for the following year, 2013/14.
The progress was set out in an update of the Infrastructure Investment Plan, first published in December 2011.
But opposition parties said the programme has been beset by delays, and accused the Government of "talking" rather than "doing".
According to the Government, several projects will be completed and become operational in 2013/14, including the Aberdeen Community Health and Care Village, several new schools, and the Glasgow School of Art estate development.
The Government said significant progress would also be made on its non-profit distributing (NPD) programme in 2013/14, with projects such as the Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary entering procurement and others such as Inverness College and City of Glasgow College moving into construction.
NPD was developed as a finance model for privately funded infrastructure projects.
It also revealed that nine projects worth over £600 million were completed in 2012, while the Government said "good progress" was made on major builds such as the Forth Replacement Crossing, the Glasgow Southern Hospitals project and the Schools for the Future programme.
Speaking during a visit to the Glasgow Southern Hospitals project, Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon said: "This Government is determined to invest in Scotland's infrastructure - our schools, roads and hospitals - both to stimulate growth in the short term and lay the foundations for long term success.
"Today's updated plan demonstrates exactly how we will do that, despite substantial and ill thought through cuts in our capital budget from Westminster of some 26%.
"We are on course to spend £3.1 billion on projects in communities across Scotland in 2012/13, supporting some 40,000 jobs.
"That is good news for our economy and our construction industry, which we know benefits from the certainty and vision of the future the Infrastructure Investment Plan provides."
Labour MSP Richard Baker said: "We all want to see more investment in infrastructure but the problem is the Scottish Government is talking about it, not doing it.
"When this plan was first announced we said it was a wish-list."
Mr Baker claimed that projects had faced delays, and the investment promised for this year had not actually been spent in full.
"The SNP's failure on capital spending is shocking. No wonder only one in eight Scots trust Nicola Sturgeon. She needs to spend less time with her Borgen DVDs and more time delivering for Scotland," said Mr Baker.