Statistics included in the latest Scottish Health Survey reveal 25% of men consumed on average more than 21 units of alcohol per week, while 18% of women drank more than 14 units.
While the proportion of adults drinking at hazardous levels has fallen over the past decade, 2012 figures remain identical to those published in 2011.
The survey also shows that, on their heaviest drinking day, 42% of men and 30% of women exceeded the recommended daily amount of four units for men and three units for women, while a quarter of men and 15% of women drank twice the recommended daily amount, suggesting binge drinking remains a problem.
Meanwhile, the figures also show that last year one in four adults aged 16 and above was a current cigarette smoker.
The figures come after Scottish Government campaigns to highlight the effects of smoking and drinking, including its Alcohol Behaviour Change campaign, launched in February 2012, and its Stop Smoking campaign, from January 2012.
Public Health Minister Michael Matheson said: "Smoking and drinking levels have been declining over recent years, however, there is still much to do.
"Alcohol misuse costs Scotland £3.6 billion per year, which equates to £900 per adult in Scotland whether they drink or not.
"Smoking is the primary preventable cause of ill health and premature death and each year tobacco use is associated with over 13,000 deaths and 56,000 hospital admissions in Scotland.
"That is why we are committed to introducing measures to further improve public health, such as minimum unit pricing and standardised packaging for cigarettes."
The Scottish Health Survey is conducted annually, and in 2012 gathered data by questioning over 4,800 adults and almost 1,800 children on a range of health-related issues, including diet, physical activity and obesity.
Mr Matheson added: "It is also encouraging that 62% of adults meet the new recommended levels of physical activity, and this shows that efforts to get people more active are working.
"However, we want to make Scotland a more active nation by encouraging people to make physical activity a part of their everyday lives, and that is why we want to increase participation through a range of new initiatives, such as a national walking strategy and a physical activity implementation plan.
"It is well known that regular activity provides a great range of health benefits and makes people feel happier, less stressed and adds years of quality life."