Nicola Sturgeon intends to make a statement to MSPs at Holyrood on the analysis of responses just over five months since the consultation closed.
The announcement comes one week after Prime Minister David Cameron visited Edinburgh to sign off a deal to deliver a legally binding, single-question referendum in 2014, through a technical "section 30 order" which was formally laid at the Scottish Parliament today.
The referendum deal was made during parliamentary recess, meaning that the first available opportunity for MSPs to be formally updated lands on the first day back tomorrow.
Ms Sturgeon said: "As part of last week's Edinburgh agreement, the section 30 order requires the approval of both the Scottish and Westminster parliaments.
"Today the Scottish Government have tabled that order, and I now look forward to taking part in parliament's consideration of the referendum details which will see a referendum on Scottish independence take place in autumn 2014.
"Tomorrow I intend, subject to the agreement of the Business Bureau, making a statement to parliament on the Edinburgh agreement and the consultation analysis report."
The consultation ran from January 5 to May 11, leading to complaints that the deal in Edinburgh pre-empted the results.
Issues raised in the consultation included the proposed timetable, whether there should be weekend voting, who should oversee the running of the referendum and what the spending limits should be.
The agreement in Edinburgh means the Scottish Parliament will legislate for the date of the referendum, whether to reduce the voting age to 16, the wording of the question, campaign finance rules and the conduct of the referendum.
Scottish Conservative deputy leader Jackson Carlaw said: "It's no surprise that this consultation has magically appeared when the ink on the agreement is barely dry. It will no doubt tell us exactly what the SNP wants us to hear.
"Given the delays in publishing this consultation, it does not bode well for a timely release of the Scottish Government's White Paper on independence due next year."
Labour constitutional spokeswoman Patricia Ferguson MSP said: "It is truly shameful that it has taken the Scottish Government the best part of six months to publish this consultation, let alone that they have done it the week after they signed the agreement for the referendum after cutting a deal behind closed doors.
"They have wasted the time and money of the Scottish people and ploughed on with their own party political agenda, ignoring the views of the Scottish public and treating the 20,000 responses to the consultation with contempt."
Scottish Liberal Democrat leader Willie Rennie MSP said: "For all of its tub-thumping over the amount of responses to the consultation, the SNP Government has chosen to publish the analysis only after the referendum deal is done. This shows complete disrespect and could be seen as an empty gesture by the public, including many nationalists, who took the effort to respond to the consultation.
"When it comes to the independence debate, the SNP Government only has ears for positive news. Alex Salmond will have to explain why he felt that those consultation responses did not matter enough to inform negotiations with the UK Government. If they did, why were they not released just one week earlier?
"Scottish Liberal Democrats are increasingly concerned about the SNP's obsession with secrecy. They have let people down by shunting the public consultation to the bottom of the referendum to-do list. It's time they remembered that this is a referendum for all of Scotland, not just the SNP."