More than half (52%) of the children living in poverty in Scotland are from households where at least one adult was working, according to Scottish Government figures.
Relative poverty is where household income is less than 60% of the average, which for a couple with two children means living on less than £20,500 a year.
The strategy aims to tackle the causes of poverty by addressing them early, improving every child's life chances through action on education, health and early-years development.
It also intends to maximise household resources through advice on welfare and benefit changes, help to find employment and managing debt.
Deputy First Minister Nicola Sturgeon launched the strategy at Toryglen community hub in Glasgow yesterday.
She said: "This strategy continues our preventative approach aimed at maximising household resources, improving children's life chances and providing sustainable places."
One of the people at the launch was Karen Hendry, 36, a single mother from the east end of Glasgow.
She said: "Raising a child and working full-time is very hard.
"On three separate occasions I received emergency money from the Scottish Welfare Fund and this was literally life-saving for me and my daughter."