Fresh data from the Office for National Statistics has revealed that almost four out of every five women living there are in employment, the highest rate of any region of Britain or Northern Ireland.
Overall, 66.8% of Scots women are active in the workplace, the fourth highest figure for the UK behind the south-east, east and south-west England, and above the national average of 66%.
A spokeswoman for the Scottish Government said the reasons for high women's employment in Orkney were rooted in history.
She said: "Historically, employment rates in Orkney are high for both men and women. Employment rates are also relatively high in other island areas, such as Shetland and Eilean Siar.
"A relatively high proportion of employment in Scotland is part-time, which may be driving high rates of female employment."
The report also found that employment for women rose steadily in the last 40 years, while the number of men in jobs has fallen.
However, men have consistently higher employment rates than women above the age of 22, and dominate in professional occupations associated with higher levels of pay.
The Office for National Statistics also said that, of the 13.4 million women in work, 42% were part-time, compared with 12% of the 15.3m men in employment.
The rise in women's employment is partly due to more mothers working, leaving fewer not looking for a job. But parenting continues to have an impact on women's fortunes, with many still giving up work after starting a family.
The report found men with children are more likely to work than those without, while the opposite holds true for women.
Women dominate employment within caring and leisure occupations, and the number working within managerial roles is slightly higher than the EU average.
Men in full-time jobs worked an average of 44 hours a week, four more then women. Most of the shift towards more women and fewer men working happened in the 20 years to 1991, reflecting a decline in manufacturing and an increase in service sector jobs.
Daisy Sands, of the Fawcett Society, said: "While highlighting the strides women have made in the workforce over the last 50 years, the report serves as a timely reminder of how far we have to go before we have a women-friendly labour market.
"The analysis shows a consistently higher employment rate for men than women. Sadly, a great deal of this difference can be attributed to our old-fashioned working practices, where combining paid work with other responsibilities is nigh on impossible. Women in the UK still tend to do the lion's share of childcare.
"Add to this the lack of flexible working opportunities and expensive childcare, and we face a situation where, for women, work all too often doesn't pay."
Youth Employment Minister Angela Constance said: "Since last year's Women's Employment Summit work has continued across the Scottish Government to implement the recommendations, including actions to tackle occupational segregation and to help more women into enterprise.
"We are delivering the best childcare package in the UK and expanding nursery provision through the Children and Young People Bill.
"Through Opportunities for All we have guaranteed every 16 to 19-year-old the offer of a place in training or education. We are funding 25,000 new modern apprenticeships every year and we have made funding available across Scotland to help small and medium sized companies create new jobs."