A state court in Frankfurt issued an injunction, meaning Uber cannot offer its services without a specific permit under German transport laws.
The injunction applies pending a full hearing of a suit brought against Uber by a German group that offers a taxi-ordering app.
The ruling comes after Berlin authorities barred Uber from operating in the capital last month because of safety concerns.
Their arguments were in line with those of established cab companies that claim Uber's app-based services, which offer limousines and pick-ups by private drivers, dodge rules that ordinary taxi firms have to abide by.
Black cab drivers in London have also protested about California-based Uber, claiming its app contravenes rules that restrict the use of taxi meters.
Protests by taxi drivers have also taken place in Paris and Madrid.