Born April 1, 1919; Died November 26, 2012.
Dr Joseph E. Murray, who has died aged 93 after suffering a stroke, was a surgeon who performed the world's first successful kidney transplant and won a Nobel Prize for his pioneering work.
Since the first kidney transplants on identical twins, hundreds of thousands of transplants on a variety of organs have been performed worldwide. Dr Murray shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine in 1990 with Dr. E. Donnall Thomas, who won for his work in bone marrow transplants.
"Kidney transplants seem so routine now," Dr Murray told The New York Times after he won the Nobel. "But the first one was like Lindbergh's flight across the ocean."
Dr Murray's breakthroughs did not come without criticism, from ethicists and religious leaders. Some people "felt that we were playing God and that we shouldn't be doing all of these, quote, experiments on human beings", he said in a 2004 interview in which he also spoke out in favour of stem cell research.
In the early 1950s, there had never been a successful human organ transplant. Dr Murray and his associates at Boston's Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, now Brigham and Women's Hospital, developed new surgical techniques, gaining knowledge by successfully transplanting kidneys on dogs.
In December 1954, they found the right patients, 23-year-old Richard Herrick, who had end-stage kidney failure, and his identical twin, Ronald Herrick.
Because of their identical genetic background, they did not face the biggest problem with transplant patients, the immune system's rejection of foreign tissue.
After the operation, Richard had a functioning kidney transplanted from Ronald. Richard lived another eight years, marrying a nurse he met at the hospital and having two children.
"Post-operatively the transplanted kidney functioned immediately with a dramatic improvement in the patient's renal and cardiopulmonary status," Dr Murray said in his Nobel lecture. "This spectacular success was a clear demonstration that organ transplantation could be life-saving."
Dr Murray performed more transplants on identical twins over the next few years and tried kidney transplants on other relatives, including fraternal twins, learning more about how to suppress the immune system's rejection of foreign tissue.
One patient who received a kidney transplant from a fraternal twin in 1959, plus radiation and a bone marrow transplant to suppress his immune response, lived for 29 more years.
But it was the development of drugs to suppress the body's immune response, a less radical approach than radiation, that made real breakthroughs in transplants possible. In 1962, Dr Murray and his team successfully completed the first organ transplant from an unrelated donor. The 23-year-old patient, Mel Doucette, received a kidney from a man who had died.
Dr Murray continued a long career in plastic surgery, his original speciality, and transplants. He was guided by his own deep religious convictions. "Work is a prayer," he told the Harvard University Gazette in 2001. "And I start off every morning dedicating it to our Creator."
Dr Murray was honoured at the 2004 Transplant Games, for athletes who have received organ transplants, along with Ronald Herrick, the man who had donated a kidney to his twin brother a half-century earlier.