Most Scots would also be reluctant to see Holyrood use new powers to create significantly different tax and welfare regimes from the rest of the UK, according to a study from the Electoral Reform Society and ScotCen Social Research.
The findings, published today, are based on a new analysis of the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey, which has tracked public opinion for over a decade.
The report's authors, Rachel Ormston and Professor John Curtice, admit there is an "apparent disjunction" between voters' appetite for enhanced devolution and their expectations of what it might deliver.
Mr Curtice, of Strathclyde University, added: "Remaining within the Union but giving the Scottish Parliament responsibility for everything apart from defence and foreign affairs appears capable of securing the consent of a majority of people in Scotland. However, voters have seemingly heard too little about the benefits that such a change might bring to have been convinced it would make much difference."
The report, More Devolution: An Alternative Road? said schemes such as 'devo max' could win backing from pro-UK and pro-independence supporters.
But it added: "Optimism about the impact that introducing much more devolution might have on life in Scotland is quite limited."
It found 64% wanted the Scottish Parliament to make most decisions on welfare – but only 34% were happy with the idea of having a different pension in Scotland than in England.
Similarly, 56% backed giving the Scottish Parliament the main responsibility for making decisions about taxes but only 44% were happy to see the basic rate of income tax varying between the two countries.