Labour conceded that the extra £20 million put in to Discretionary Housing Payment was capped, but Mr Gray insisted that "with a little imagination" other ways could be found to help tackle the crisis. "Where there's a will there's a way," he added.
He said: "While there have been challenges in setting this year's budget as a consequence of the macroeconomic failures of the UK Government, and the budget cuts they have imposed, this is also a budget that comes at a particularly exciting time for our nation when the eyes of the world will be on Scotland."
The Budget confirms plans for £59m to be spent over two years to provide more free childcare places, taking the total extra spend over that period to about £250m.
Funding of £55m over two years for free school meals for youngsters in primaries one to three is also set out in the Bill as part of a £114m package of help for young people.
It also proposes spending £68m in each of the next two years to mitigate welfare reforms introduced by Westminster, as well as £20m this year and next year to limit the impact of the so-called "bedroom tax".
LibDems voted for the Budget while saying it was "not perfect" but the Tories called it "weak" and refused to back it.