The Spanish club will compete in the final of the Champions League on Saturday against city rival Real, just a week after securing their domestic championship.
The league trophy was made safe by a 1-1 draw away to Barcelona and accounted for Atletico's first domestic title in 18 years. The side have the opportunity to add a first Champions League triumph in Lisbon this weekend.
Should they succeed then they will deny their neighbours a 10th European title. "Without a doubt today we were able to make history," said Diego Simeone, the Atletico coach who has transformed the club since taking over at the end of 2011. "But we have to play on Saturday and we have to prepare ourselves for Saturday."
The Champions League final is the first between two teams from the same city in the 59-year history of Europe's premier competition. It will mark Real's 13th appearance in the final and the first since they won their ninth trophy in 2002, while Atletico have only made the final once before. They lost to Bayern Munich in 1974, after a replay.
There was the possibility of the league match between Osasuna and Real Betis being replayed after a fence collapsed and supporters fell on to the pitch. The game was delayed by 30 minutes as fans were treated for injuries, with Osasuna going on to win 2-1.