England fell behind to a superb 35-yard strike from Yevgen Konoplianka seven minutes before the interval.
But Lampard equalled Bryan Robson's tally of 26 goals for his country after Yevhen Khacheridi handled before England skipper Steven Gerrard was sent off for his second bookable offence.
Gerrard was left wincing after being on the receiving end of a challenge from Roman Zozulya in the first minute but was able to continue.
Denys Garmash was left winded after half charging down a clearance from England goalkeeper Joe Hart.
England had a let-off after four minutes when a cross from the right flank by Oleg Gusev took a deflection off Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain, flew over the head of Hart and struck the outside of a post.
Glenn Johnson threatened when he cut in from the left and past two defenders but he scuffed his shot.
Ukraine posed problems in the early stages and Roman Zozulya twice failed to take advantage of teasing low balls into the box from Gusev and Yevgen Konoplianka respectively.
Jermain Defoe thought he had given England the lead after 10 minutes when he curled a shot past Andrei Pyatov from just inside the area.
But replays showed he had handed off Andriy Yarmolenko during the build-up and his effort was disallowed.
Gerrard came to England's rescue when he cleared a goal-bound shot from Ruslan Rotan after a mistake by Tom Cleverley had handed Ukraine possession.
England started to enjoy more of the possession and a neat flick from Defoe almost played in James Milner.
Milner then made a powerful run into the Ukraine area but his shot was blocked by Yevgen Selin at the expense of a corner.
Gerrard's resulting centre was met by Jagielka but his downward header was hacked clear by Rotan.
Ukraine still posed a threat when they ventured forward and Garmash made a penetrating run to get in between Milner and Lescott, but he could not keep down his volleyed attempt from Selin's centre.
Cleverley should have put England ahead after 34 minutes when Defoe headed a probing Gerrard pass back across goal, but the Manchester United player side-footed the ball straight at Pyatov.
It proved a costly miss as a stunning strike from Konoplianka gave Ukraine the lead four minutes later.
He cut inside Gerrard and his swerving 35-yard shot flew past the despairing dive of Hart into the roof of the net.
Cleverley missed another good opportunity when he failed to make full contact on a low cross from Lampard.
The biggest cheer so far of the evening was reserved for the 15 Team GB Olympic Games medal winners who were introduced to the crowd at half-time.
Defoe was yellow-carded after three minutes of the second period for leading with his arm in an aerial challenge with Ukrainian skipper Anatoliy Tymoshchuk.
England tried to inject some urgency into their play and a low ball across the box from Johnson took a deflection off Yaroslav Rakitskiy and flew past the far post.
But Lampard was well off target with a volley from an acute angle as he looked to add to his two goals against Moldova on Friday evening.
Gerrard was booked for a similar type of challenge to the one by Defoe, this time on Rotan, and Selin also went into the referee's notebook for halting the run of Milner.
Ukraine almost caught England out on the counter-attack and it needed Leighton Baines to deflect the ball out for a corner as Zozulya attacked a cross from Konoplianka.
Hodgson made his first change after 62 minutes with the out-of-sorts Cleverley replaced by Danny Welbeck.
Johnson forced a fine save out of Piatov with a low cross shot although the referee awarded a goal kick.
Hodgson's final change saw Ryan Bertrand replacing Baines but England were now struggling to break down the Ukranians, who were content to defend in numbers and to break up play in whatever way possible.
Garmash held back Welbeck and received a yellow card.
But the Manchester United player could only hold his head in his hands after hitting the outside of a post from close range from a Sturridge centre.
Lampard salvaged a point for England from the penalty spot with three minutes left after Yevhen Khacheridi handled in the box.
A minute later Gerrard was sent off for a second bookable offence after a lunge at Garmash. Johnson was booked in time added on for holding back Vyacheslav Shevchuk.