The defender was issued with a notice of complaint by SFA compliance officer Vincent Lunny for "by striking an opposing player, namely John Baird, with his elbow" during Celtic's 2-0 Boxing Day win at Dens Park.
Wilson contested the charge but it was upheld with the suspension applied with immediate effect.
The decision is sure to disappoint Wilson, who, after yesterday's 1-0 win over Motherwell at Parkhead, revealed he would be making a personal appearance at Hampden in a bid to clear his name.
The former Nottingham Forest player was confident that Baird's comments after the Dundee game would help his case.
Wilson said: "It wasn't an elbow so I don't know where the violent conduct has come from.
"To be fair the boy, he said he was grabbing my shirt and I was just trying to get away, which I was and unfortunately I caught him.
"If you go into a court of law and someone gives a statement like that then it is taken into consideration so I hope that is the case.
"But we will see. If it goes against me I will just have to get on with it but hopefully the people will see sense and it will get resolved."
Wilson will miss the Clydesdale Bank Premier League game against Hearts at Celtic Park after the winter break on January 19 and the Scottish Communities League Cup semi-final against St Mirren at Hampden the following weekend.