The 35-year-old failed to add a two-shot penalty to his card after an incident on the eighth hole, where he touched the line of his putt after marking his ball and appeared to flatten a spike mark. Having reviewed the incident, officials concluded that an investigation into an alleged "serious breach" of the tour's code of behaviour was required.
Dyson will appear before a three-person disciplinary panel at Wentworth this morning.
If he is found guilty, sanctions range from a reprimand to "expulsion from the European Tour, or otherwise as the panel shall determine."
Dyson will have 28 days in which to appeal the verdict.