The 23-year-old Goffin will compete in his third Wimbledon championships and is currently ranked 104 in the world.
Murray became the first British winner at Wimbledon for 77 years last summer and will enter the tournament with Amelie Mauresmo as his new coach.
The draw has been relatively kind to Murray, who could face a quarter-final against seventh seed Spaniard David Ferrer, or Queen's Club champion and 11th seed Grigor Dimitrov.
Number-three seed Murray could then meet tournament favourite Novak Djokovic in the semi-finals, but cannot face second favourite Rafael Nadal until the final.
Top seed Djokovic will play world number 55 Andrey Golubev, the 26-year-old Kazakhstani a relatively tricky proposition.
Seven-time champion Federer will take on Paolo Lorenzi, the 32-year-old Italian ranked 81 in the world.
Fellow Brit James Ward will face 17th seed Mikhail Youzhny in a tough first-round pairing, the 31-year-old Russian ranked 16th in the world.
Dan Evans will play 23-year-old Russian Andrey Kuznetsov, currently rated world number 114, in a far more comfortable draw.
Kyle Edmund will come up against Austrian Andreas Haider-Maurer, the world number 96.
Brit Dan Smethurst drew ninth seed John Isner, the big-serving American ranked number 11 in the world, while Dan Cox will face France's world number 43 Jeremy Chardy.
In the ladies' draw British hope Samantha Murray will take on reigning French Open champion and fifth seed Maria Sharapova, perhaps the most daunting match-up of the round.
Heather Watson faces a tough draw against Croatian world number 52 Ajla Tomljanovic, while Johanna Konta is up against China's Shuai Peng.
Wild card British entrant Tara Moore has drawn Russian Vera Zvonareva.
Here, Murray's possible route to the 2014 final.
Second round - Pablo Andujar
Murray could come up against Spain's world number 79 in his second Wimbledon clash, should Andujar dispatch Slovenian's Blaz Rola.
The reigning champion would expect to move past either man, but may favour Andujar given his preference for clay.
Murray has already beaten Andujar in 2014, in the pair's only previous meeting, in Acapulco.
Third round - Roberto Bautista Agut
The pressure and standard could start to rise considerably should Murray face the 27th seed Spaniard.
The 28-year-old has never faced Murray before, but is ranked 28 in the world and is on the rise.
Fourth round - Kevin Anderson
Murray could face Fabio Fognini in the fourth round, but only if the 16th seed can dispatch big-serving Kevin Anderson.
The giant South African could prove too tough a proposition for Italian Fognini, ranked 15th in the world but perhaps struggling to match Anderson's bullet serve.
Fognini beat Murray on clay in the Davis Cup in April but would be a big outsider on the Wimbledon grass.
Anderson's potent serve could help him belie his 20th seeding, and would pose a host of problems for Murray should the two meet.
Quarter-final - Grigor Dimitrov
Queen's champion Dimitrov looks finally primed to assume the top-level mantle that has been predicted for him for so long.
The 23-year-old 11th seed is four places down the Wimbledon rankings on potential fourth-round opponent David Ferrer, but could just have found the form to match his billing.
Murray leads the head-to-head with Dimitrov 3-1, but the Bulgarian beat the Scot in Acapulco earlier this year.
Semi-final - Novak Djokovic
Top seed Djokovic may still be smarting from his latest French Open final mauling at the hands of clay king Rafael Nadal, but will no doubt steel mind and form for SW19.
Murray beat the Serbian to claim his Wimbledon crown last summer, but Djokovic leads the pair's meetings 12-8.
Djokovic will open against Kazakhstan's Andrey Golubev and could meet 2010 runner-up Tomas Berdych in the last eight.
Final - Rafael Nadal
Roger Federer is still gunning for that eighth Wimbledon title, and Murray cannot meet the stylish Swiss grass master until the final.
The current champion cannot face bullish Spaniard Nadal until the last match either, and the world number one heads to SW19 in supreme form once again.
As ever Nadal's chief battle will be to transfer his form from the clay to the grass.
Nadal faces Martin Klizan in round one and could meet Lukas Rosol in the second round, the man who dumped him out of the competition in 2012.
Federer meanwhile could meet Stanisas Wawrinka in the quarter-finals, and opens his account against Paolo Lorenzi.