Engine tests on rocket fuel made from waste have taken place in Scotland for the first time.

Skyrora has developed technology to convert plastics headed for landfill and oceans into an eco power source for its satellites as it competes to become the first company to fire a rocket into space from the UK.

The Edinburgh-based company has now completed a week of static horizontal ground firings on its 3D-printed engine in Fife to compare the behaviour of kerosene and the fuel, known as Ecosene.

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Volodymyr Levykin, chief executive of Skyrora, said: "These tests have been a crucial way for us to demonstrate the real scientific credentials underpinning our work.

"I must thank our team for their hard work in getting us to this stage and ensuring the tests are delivering exactly what we set out to do.

"In particular, the final day of testing on the Friday was a big day for us in learning more about the nuances of Ecosene - crucial for unlocking the transformative potential it holds for us and the entire space sector."

The Skyrora rocket will be used to position satellites into separate orbits of up to 500km altitude.

The test firings allowed the company to assess its 3D-printed engine, which will be used to power the final upper stage of its 22-metre rocket.

It has the ability to restart in orbit with the use of its hydrogen peroxide system, which makes it suitable as an orbital manoeuvring unit or a space tug.

This means it could complete a range of tasks from space debris removal to aiding a moon mission.

The first tests involved 30-second firings using kerosene.
On Friday, the first UK tests of its Ecosene fuel took place, allowing comparisons of its performance and behaviour directly with kerosene.

As well as emitting around 45% less in greenhouse gases, it is particularly suited to cope with the potential weather problems or delays that could affect the proposed Scottish rocket sites.

This is because it does not require cryogenic freezing and can stand in a tank for long periods of time.

Credit card providers should consider cutting or waiving fees for people in persistent debt spirals, the City regulator has said.

The Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) also said firms should not just suspend a credit card without having an objectively justifiable reason.

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The watchdog has set out its expectations by writing to credit card companies telling them to review their approach to borrowers who are stuck in persistent debt - where they have been paying more in interest, fees and charges than the amounts they have shaved off their balance.

The FCA estimates that customers could collectively save up to £1.3 billion a year in lower interest charges.

The regulator's previous market analysis found that more than three million credit card holders, with a total of four million accounts, were in persistent debt.

These customers pay around £2.50 on average in interest and charges for every £1 repaid.

The FCA said firms should help people who have been caught in a cycle of persistent debt for three years by proposing and agreeing plans with customers to resolve the situation.

Credit card providers should make sure their approach is in line with the FCA's expectations.

The regulator said companies must encourage customers to speak with them to discuss potential repayment arrangements.

If customers cannot afford the options proposed by the firm, they must be treated with forbearance and due consideration, for example, by reducing, waiving or cancelling any interest or charges.

The FCA said there is also a concern that providers may impose a "blanket" suspension of credit cards for everyone in persistent debt, including those willing to engage and come to an agreement.

In these circumstances, firms are not allowed to suspend a credit card without having an objectively justifiable reason.

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Jonathan Davidson, executive director of supervision for retail and authorisations at the FCA, said: "Under our rules, firms must help customers to reduce the level of debt they have on their credit card more quickly.

"If a customer cannot afford the firm's proposals for how to do this, the firm must offer forbearance, potentially including reducing, waiving or cancelling any interest, fees or charges."

A spokeswoman for trade association UK Finance said: "The FCA's new persistent debt rules are designed to help customers to reduce the cost of their borrowing by encouraging them to pay back their credit card balance quicker, where they can afford to do so."

Tesco has said new chief executive Ken Murphy, who replaces outgoing Dave Lewis, will start the role in October, once his non-compete notice period with current employer Boots comes to an end.

The supermarket added that Mr Lewis will stay in post until then, extending his current contract beyond the summer, when he was previously expected to leave.