At least 45 Kurdish rebels have been killed in air strikes on suspected militant targets in northern Iraq following the suicide car bombing in Ankara, Turkey's military has said.

Meanwhile, a police officer and three Kurdish militants were killed in fighting in the mainly Kurdish city of Diyarbakir, media reports said.

Turkish F-16 and F4 jets struck Kurdistan Workers Party, or PKK, positions across the border in Iraq on Monday, a day after the attack which killed 37 people and wounded dozens of others.

There was no immediate claim of responsibility for the Ankara attack, which authorities say was carried out by a female bomber and a possible male accomplice.

Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu said there were "almost certain" indications that the bombing was the work of the PKK.

The attack escalated tensions with the Kurds and further complicated Turkey's place in the region as it battles a host of enemies across its borders including the Syrian government, Kurdish rebels in both Iraq and Syria, and the Islamic State group. Turkey has also been forced to absorb 2.7 million refugees from the conflict.

The state-run Anadolu Agency said authorities had declared a curfew in Diyarbakir's low-income Baglar neighbourhood early on Tuesday after clashes erupted overnight between Kurdish militants and the security forces. The Dogan news agency said a police officer and three militants were killed in the clashes.

Turkey this week also declared curfews and launched large-scale operations against Kurdish militants in the towns of Nusaybin and Yuksekova in the mostly-Kurdish south-east region.

Earlier, the military said Monday's air strikes, which targeted the Qandil mountains where the PKK's leadership is based, killed 45 PKK rebels and destroyed two arms depots and two rocket launcher positions. The military claim could not immediately be verified.

The PKK is fighting Turkey for Kurdish autonomy in the south-east. The fragile two-year peace process collapsed in July, reigniting the conflict. The PKK is considered a terror organisation by Turkey and its allies.

Meanwhile, the military denied a claim by Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov who said Moscow has information that Turkey's military is entrenched a few hundred yards inside Syrian territory to prevent Kurdish groups from strengthening their positions.

A brief military statement on the issue said: "The claims are untrue."