Russia launched three waves of night-time air attacks against the southern Ukraine port city of Odesa, officials said on Monday, but the Ukrainian air force said it intercepted all 15 incoming Shahed drones and eight Kalibr missiles.

Falling debris from the interceptions damaged the dormitory of an educational facility in the city, a residential building and a supermarket, Odesa Governor Oleh Kiper said.

Two employees of the supermarket were taken to hospital, he said.

Meanwhile, the Dutch Defence Ministry said it scrambled two F-16s early on Monday when two Russian bombers were tracked flying towards Dutch airspace.

“This doesn’t happen often, but today’s incident demonstrates the importance of rapid deployment,” the ministry said. “The F-16s are on stand-by 24 hours a day and can take off within minutes and intercept an unidentified aircraft.”

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Ukrainian soldiers load flyers urging Russian soldiers to surrender into a Grad multiple launch rocket system near Bakhmut in the Donetsk region (Libkos/AP)

The two planes were identified by Danish F-16s in international airspace over the Baltic Sea but did not enter Danish airspace, the Danish Air Force said.

In March, British and German fighter jets were scrambled to intercept a Russian aircraft flying close to Estonian airspace, officials said, amid mounting concerns about aerial stand-offs near Russia and Ukraine.

A day earlier, the US said a Russian fighter jet struck a US surveillance drone over the Black Sea. Russia insisted its warplanes did not hit the MQ-9 Reaper drone, arguing that the drone manoeuvred sharply and crashed into the water.

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Ukrainian soldiers on the front line near Bakhmut (Libkos/AP)

The Kremlin’s forces have pummelled Odesa recently, aiming at facilities that transport Ukraine’s crucial grain exports and also wrecking Ukrainian historical sites.

The stepped-up barrage followed Moscow’s decision to break off a landmark agreement that had allowed grain to flow from Ukraine to countries in Africa, the Middle East and Asia and help reduce the threat of hunger.

Following that withdrawal, Russia carried out repeated strikes on Ukrainian ports, including Odesa, and declared wide areas of the Black Sea unsafe for shipping.

On Sunday, a Russian warship fired warning shots at a cargo ship in the south-western Black Sea.

Russia’s Defence Ministry said the ship was heading north to the Ukrainian Danube River port of Izmail.

Russian forces fired shots from automatic small arms to force it to stop, the ministry said on Telegram.

Ukraine’s presidential office reported on Monday that at least eight civilians were killed and 23 others injured in Ukraine over the previous 24 hours.